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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

CIRCULAR No. 280 
November, 1924 

REPORT ON SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 
WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT 

By FEED L. YAW 



THE PEOBLEM 

Early in 1922 a conference in San Francisco upon the tomato- 
growing industry was arranged by the Canners' League of Cali- 
fornia, in order to consider means and methods of bringing about 
improved conditions. At this conference various private, corporate, 
state and federal agencies interested in this subject were represented. 
The principal conclusions reached emphasized the needs of the industry 
along the line of disease control and variety improvement. As a 
result of this activity, Mr. Michael Shapovalov of the United States 
Department of Agriculture was assigned to work in California upon 
the investigation of tomato diseases, particularly that called western 
blight and the seemingly related wilt. Mr. Shapovalov located at the 
Citrus Experiment Station of the University of California at River- 
side, and is still continuing in the work of disease investigation. On 
the part of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Mr. J. W. Lesley 
(Genetics) undertook the work of breeding disease-resistant and other- 
wise desirable tomato varieties, while the writer was detailed to make 
a survey of the conditions and methods actually existing in the tomato- 
growing industry and to suggest practical possibilities of immediate 
improvement. 

This work has had to do almost entirely with the growing of 
canning tomatoes in the San Francisco Bay region. The situation has 
been stated as follows: "The canners have become alarmed at the 
decreasing yields per acre and the inclination of growers not to grow 
tomatoes because of the low yields and the low price which the canners 
are forced to offer on account of the class of fruit produced. ' ' In the 
absence of specific information and without any very definite evidence, 
the disease called western blight has been looked upon as the cause of 
much of the trouble. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 



PLAN OF THE WOEK 

The work has consisted in systematic observation of most of the 
tomato fields in the Bay region, together with frequent trips to the 
lower Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys and occasional visits to the 
upper San Joaquin and southern California during the seasons of 
1922 and 1923. In 1922, an experimental variety planting was made 
at Manteca, San Joaquin County. In 1923, more extensive variety 
tests were made at San Jose, Haywar'd, Manteca, and Folsom. Canning 
tests and other miscellaneous work was done at San Jose. 

The aim has been to learn existing conditions in the tomato-growing 
industry by means of field observations and studies as to the prevalence 
of diseases, methods of growing and handling the crop, and the value 
of different varieties. The general idea has been to learn what can 
be done for the improvement of the industry by the application of 
existing knowledge rather than to inaugurate research into entirely 
new fields. Much of the work has been done in close cooperation with 
Messrs. M. Shapovalov and J. W. Lesley, although their work was 
more particularly on other phases of the problem and centered largely 
in southern California. The identification of diseases has been very 
largely corroborated by Mr. Shapovalov or by members of the Division 
of Plant Pathology at Berkeley. The identification and estimation of 
varieties and the discussion of cultural methods are based on the 
writer's personal judgment. 

In presenting this report, the method followed will be to give a 
brief description of the methods, varieties, etc., now in use, and the 
conditions and information now existing, followed in each section by 
a paragraph embodying the writer 's conclusions and suggestions as to 
possibilities of improvement in this particular respect. The descrip- 
tion of prevailing methods and conditions is given simply to present 
these suggestions intelligently and not with the idea of writing a 
circular of information on tomato growing. Such a publication has 
recently been issued by this Station. 1 

NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY 

The tomato industry in California separates quite naturally into 
two divisions : production for the canneries, and production for the 
fresh fruit shipment. In some sections there is an overlapping of 
these two lines of production, but generally they are fairly separate. 

1 Rosa, J. T. Tomato production in California. Calif. Agri. Exp. Sta. 
Circ. 263, pp. 1-19, figs. 1-6. 1923. 



Circular 280] survey of the canning tomato industry 3 

The principal canning districts are in the vicinity of San Francisco 
Bay, especially about San Jose and Hayward and extending northeast 
and south to a considerable distance, and in the vicinity of Los Angeles. 
Imperial Valley produces tomatoes extensively for early shipment and 
the crop is grown locally in many other parts of the state. 

The growing of tomatoes in California does not constitute a major 
business with many land owners. There are no tomato growers in the 
sense that there are pear, prune, apricot, and even potato growers. 
The tomato is grown largely by renters on a share basis and usually as 
a temporary crop. It is used also to a large extent as an intercrop in 
young orchards or on land which is destined eventually to be planted 
in orchard. Consequently, very few land owners have any permanent 
interest in the success of the tomato industry. This being the situation, 
any concentrated or sustained effort toward improvement must come 
from canners or shippers, or from some other agency which has a 
permanent interest in the product, rather than from the growers 
themselves. 

PKOPAGATION 

In the commercial propagation of tomatoes, several methods are 
employed, depending largely upon the location and the season of the 
year. During the winter months both hotbeds and cold frames are 
used for seed planting, and cold frames for transplanting from hot- 
beds. During the milder seasons of the year, seed are sown in open 
beds, and in the Manteca district the seed are planted at proper dis- 
tances directly in the field. This is the only northern section in which 
field planting of seed is done and the practice is supposed to have orig- 
inated as a means of controlling western blight. During 1922 and 
1923, western blight has not been prevalent in the Manteca district, 
therefore no observation has been possible as to the effect of field- 
planted seed in the control of this disease. 

In southern California the tomato season extends from April to 
December and seed planting dates vary with locality rather than with 
season. Plants are produced in this section in hotbeds, cold frames, 
and open beds. In the Imperial Valley some acreage is field-planted ; 
here also the young plants are protected by the use of paper caps and 
small brush and weed structures about each plant. In the Bay region, 
tomato seed is planted in cold frames, beginning January 1st and 
ending about March 1st. Transplanting in the cold frames is practiced 
for the earliest plants, while the later plants are transplanted to open 
beds as well as into cold frames. Those growers who do not transplant 



4 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

into cold frames, sow the seed rather thinly to provide room for the 
seedlings. Transplanting, however, is quite generally practiced. In 
the central valley section, seed-planting in hotbeds begins January 1st 
and the plants are not usually transplanted either within the hotbeds 
or to cold frames. The seed are broadcast rather thinly and the plants 




Fig. 1. — Cold frame seed bed as used in the San Francisco Bay region for 
starting tomato plants. These beds are usually planted in January, giving 
large, three- to four-months-old plants for field planting in May. Seed planting 
in late February or March, producing smaller, younger plants for field planting 
with less breakage of roots and less shock in transplanting, is recommended 
to prevent disease. 



after hardening are transplanted directly to the fields. In the Bay 
region most of the plants from seed planted January 1st are set in the 
field about May 1st, although, some field-planting begins about 
April 15th. Under this practice the plants are from three to four 



CIRCULAR 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 5 

months old when set in the field. In the Merced district, plants from 
seed planted January 1st are planted in the field during March and 
commence producing* fruit by June 1st. 

Be commendations. — Tomato plants about eight inches high are best for field 
planting. This size should be reached in from six to eight weeks. Under the 
practice in the Bay region of planting seed in January for field planting in 
May, the plants are from three to four months old when set in the field. While 
such plants are large-sized, it is doubtful if the results are as good as those 
obtained with plants from seed sown about March first. Plants held too long 
in the seed bed or cold frame undergo a check before being moved to the field 
and the shock of transplanting is more severe in large than in small plants. 
There is also more breaking of roots and underground injury, which may have a 
rather direct relation to diseases which will be discussed under that heading. 
Later planting of seed beds (February 15-Mareh 1), resulting in the field- 
planting of younger, smaller plants (6-8 weeks old, 8 inches high) is strongly 
recommended for the Bay region. This method has proved satisfactory after 
definite trial on a considerable scale and it is believed that its general adoption 
would result in less disease and increased production per acre. 

FIELD PRACTICE 

The practice in many states of growing tomatoes in high ridges or 
on two-rowed beds for the control of fruit rots caused by soil fungi is 
not followed in California. In this state the field, after it has been 
prepared by plowing and harrowing, is usually furrowed with a plow 
at the planting distance desired and the plants are set on the side of 
the furrow, following immediately with an irrigation. With each 
successive cultivation the land is turned toward the plants until the 
irrigation furrow is in the center of the row and the general effect is 
as though the plants had been set in the center of a wide, low bed. 

Planting distances vary from 7 by 7 feet to 16 inches apart. The 
usual distances are 6 by 6 feet and 6 by 4 feet.- The most radical 
departure in tomato growing is to be found at Merced. Here the 
tomatoes are set about 16 inches apart in rows only 3 feet apart and the 
plants are pruned to two stems and trained up on stakes. This method 
prevails only in the production of tomatoes for market, and of course 
makes necessary a great amount of hand labor. The average field of 
stake-grown tomatoes is small, not being much larger than can be cared 
for by the grower himself and his family. It is the most intensive 
system practiced in California tomato-growing. 



b UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

FEETILIZATTON 

It is the experience of tomato growers (as with growers of many 
other crops) that it is only on new land that maximum production is 
obtained. If continuous planting on the same land is practiced, the 
yield ordinarily declines rapidly. Seasonably accurate figures in a 
typical case of a field of about forty acres show a production for 1920 
of 900 tons, for 1921 of 600 tons, and for 1922 of 400 tons. What part 
of this rapid decrease in tonnage may be charged to soil changes, crop 
residues, faulty growing conditions, increase of parasites, or other 
factors is not known. 

Commercial fertilizers have been used only to a very limited extent 
in tomato growing in California. The results have not been encourag- 
ing, whether because of an improper selection of materials or because 
of insufficient amounts applied has not been, determined. 



ACEEAGE 

During 1922, it was estimated that the acreage under contract for 
the canneries was between 17,000 and 18,000 acres. During 1923, the 
estimated acreage under contract for the canneries was over 22,000 
acres, with an equal acreage employed in the growing of tomatoes for 
shipping and market, making a total of approximately 45,000 acres 
devoted to the production of tomatoes in 1923. 

Recommendations. — The writer has no very specific suggestions as to improve- 
ment of field practice with tomatoes in the Bay region. Methods which apply 
generally to the culture of all field crops, such as thorough preparation of the 
soil, maintenance of an adequate moisture condition and thorough cultivation 
after irrigation as late in the season as this can be practiced, cannot be over- 
emphasized. Beyond this, the greatest possibilities of increasing crops and 
improving quality through cultural means may be in soil fertilization, but this 
is yet to be proven. 

HAEVESTING 

Tomatoes for the canneries are ready in August and the harvest 
is in full swing by September 15. The season continues usually until 
late November, or until frost or rain ruins the fruit. Gathering in 
baskets is the common practice. As the baskets are filled, they are 
carried to the ends of the rows and emptied by pouring the fruit into 
lug boxes. Some growers gather in lug boxes, but this is considered 
bad practice and should be prohibited by the canneries. A lug box 
is so large that a picker can walk around the box and throw fruit into 



Circular 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 7 

it, which he usually does. When the box is half or more filled, it 
becomes so heavy that the picker handles it roughly, the result being 
that the ripe fruit is crushed and broken before it leaves the field. 
The common practice is to haul directly from the field to the cannery. 
In some instances the boxes are hauled to a loading platform and then 
loaded onto trucks or wagons for hauling to the canneries. 

Only full ripe fruit is acceptable for canning and for other tomato 
products and when in this condition the fruit is easily injured by 
rough handling. Many pickers handle the fully ripe fruit as though 
it had the durability of cobble stones. The loaders and unloaders 
handle the boxes too often with unnecessary roughness. The losses 
resulting from bad handling hurt both the grower and the buyer, but 
the grower must suffer the greater loss. 

Be commendations. — The tomato gathering season, for delivery to the can- 
neries, is too long. The season generally ends only on account of its termination 
by unfavorable weather. The fruit begins to ripen by August 15 and should 
there come a heavy frost by October 15, the average grower loses approximately 
half of his possible crop, because it has not matured before this date. The 
season for gathering can undoubtedly be shortened by the intelligent selection 
of plants and fruit for seed, thus obtaining a strain or variety which matures 
the bulk of its crop within a shorter period than at present. In the effort to 
obtain such a variety, other qualities such as disease resistance, canning quality 
productivity, etc., must also, of course, be considered. 

VAEIETIES 

The number of varieties of tomatoes grown commercially in Cali- 
fornia is comparatively small. In the southern part of the state the 
Stone holds first place for both shipping and for canning purposes. 
Earliana and strains of Earliana are grown for the earliest shipments, 
followed by Stone for the main crop. Globe is also being grown. The 
Stone is practically the only variety being used by the canneries in the 
south, except that over-ripe Earliana and other varieties are utilized 
in the making of sauce, paste and puree. In the northern part of the 
state the variety commonly called "Jap Canner." "Canner," and 
"San Jose Canner" is the most largely grown variety for the can- 
neries. In the interior valley sections, the Stone is almost the only 
variety grown for the canneries. For shipping purposes the Earliana 
and strains of this variety are grown for earliest shipping, followed 
by Stone for the main shipping crop. In the section about Center- 
ville and Irvington it has been found that the variety generally grown 
there and called Stone is in reality not Stone at all, but a somewhat 
degenerated strain of the Morse San Jose Canner. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 




Fig. 2. — Stone tomato, grown largely for shipping and canning. Very susceptible 
to disease and should be replaced by Norton and other resistant varieties. 



Circular 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 9 

Stone. — This is at present the leading variety in the state as a 
whole, being extensively grown for both canning and shipping in the 
south and in the interior valleys, and for shipping purposes in the 
north. It is a variety of luxuriant growth and heavy bearing. The 
fruit is of bright red color and good size, smooth and symmetrical 
in form, and of firm, solid texture. It is not an early bearer and there- 
fore not adapted to planting for early shipment. The great defect of 
Stone is its susceptibility to disease. In other parts of the country it 
is known to be one of the varieties most susceptible to Fusarium wilt, 
and the same is true in California. In relation to other diseases, the 
Stone is as susceptible as any other variety and suffers great annual 
losses from such causes. It has no marked superiority in any way 
over certain other varieties and there is, therefore, no reason why it 
should be considered desirable for continued planting. 

Be commendation. — It is recommended that the Stone be replaced at present 
for canning by Norton or Norduke, both of which are of Stone type and red in 
color. These have shown themselves to be as resistant to wilt in California as 
elsewhere and appear to have all the good qualities of the Stone. Globe, a 
resistant pink variety, is recommended to replace Stone as a shipper. Norton 
(red) is also good for shipping. 

Canner. — The variety commonly grown for the canning trade in 
the Bay region is the ' ' Canner ' ' (' ' Jap Canner, "" San Jose Canner " ) . 
On both sides of San Francisco Bay and as far south as Hollister this 
is almost the only variety grown for the canneries and undoubtedly 
furnishes the greatest tonnage of any and all varieties grown for can- 
ning in this state. The ' ' Canner ' ' is a strain of the old Trophy which 
apparently was originated by selection in the San Jose district. It 
has the bright red color, "meatiness," and flavor desired by the 
canners and is a general favorite with those now growing tomatoes 
for the canneries. In the Bay region it is a very heavy bearer, yields 
of 30 tons or more per acre being known, while production of 20 to 25 
tons per acre is fairly common. The entire acreage under contract to 
one of the canneries during 1922, averaged an acre production of 11 
tons delivered to the cannery. The average production of tomatoes for 
the state is only 4 to 5 tons per acre. The Canner variety makes an 
excellent canned fruit, puree, sauce, ketchup or paste. It is a very 
large tomato, made up of thick outer walls and inner divisions with 
small and broken cells. It gives a large percentage of solid as com- 
pared to liquid content. The strain commonly grown for packing is 
badly degenerated. This has been brought about by lack of intelligent 
selection as it is likely that the bulk of the seed planted is from nothing 
better than culls. The best average of the fruit is not over half smooth 



10 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 




Fig. 3. — Sections of Stone tomato. 




Fig. 4. — "Jap Canner" tomato. This is at present the most popular variety 
in the Bay region for canning, on account of size, heavy production, color, flavor 
and high percentage of flesh. The variety is superior in all these respects and 
has some disease-resistance. It needs improvement by selection in shape, amount 
of core, time of ripening and disease-resistance. 



12 . UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

or fairly smooth tomatoes. The fruit is large, flat, with a deep stem 
cavity, and rough at both the stem and blossom ends. This roughness 
is responsible for the introduction of active yeasts and moulds into 
tomato products and also for a large cannery waste. 

The "Canner" has a large white or greenish core extending from 
the stem end almost to the blossom end of the fruit. The removal of 
this core undoubtedly involves the greatest waste of any of the cannery 
operations. So large a piece of the fruit is removed with the core 
that the locules are opened and subsequent handling causes loss of 
jelly, seeds, juice, and a considerable amount of tomato flesh. The 
average size of "Canner" tomatoes delivered to the cannery is too 
large for canning purposes; the diameter of the fruit should not be 
larger than that of the container. The season required for maturing 
"Jap Canner" fruit is altogether too long, resulting in the loss of a 
large part of the crop in years when early frosts or heavy rains occur. 
This variety appears to have some resistance to Fusarium or wilt 
disease, more at least than the Stone. 

The "Canner" at present is undoubtedly the best commercial 
canning variety for both grower and packer on account of its heavy 
production and the color, solidity, flavor, and high percentage of solids 
of the fruit. Both production and quality are sustained late in the 
fall. The variety shows considerable disease resistance in the Bay 
region. On account, however, of the serious defects of oversized, 
unshapely, rough fruit with an exaggerated core and the long season 
required for maturing the crop, together with the need of increased 
disease resistance, there is great room for improvement in this variety. 

Becommendations. — Efforts should at once be made to improve the "Jap 
Canner' ' variety by selection in the field, in respect to smoothness of fruit, 
amount of core, length of time required for maturing the bulk of the crop, and 
in disease resistance. This variety has so many good qualities and is so firmly 
established in the Bay region that the gradual development and introduction of 
an improved strain seems more practical than attempting to introduce an 
entirely new variety. 

Morse 's San Jose Canner. — This variety or strain has been 
developed through several years' careful selection from the "Jap 
Canner" in an effort to obtain a smoother and more uniform fruit. 
This goal has been attained to a very considerable extent. The Morse 
Canner has not as yet, however, attained a very firm place in the 
tomato-growing industry, possibly for some of the following reasons : 
On all kinds of ground it will not produce as heavily as the "Jap 
Canner. ' ' On new, heavy ground, however, the ' ' Morse ' ' may produce 
even more heavily than the "Jap," as the latter, under these condi- 



CIRCULAR 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 13 

tions, is inclined to produce vine at the expense of fruit. On lighter or 
old tomato ground the extreme vigor of the ordinary "Canner" gives 
superior yields. Crops of over twenty tons per acre have been recorded 
with "Morse Canner" in 1923. In quality, there is considerable experi- 
ence to show that in the first half of the crop the ' ' Morse ' ' compares 
favorably with the ' ' Jap Canner ' ' for percentage of solids to liquids, 
but in the latter part of the crop the tomatoes are inclined to be small 
and soft. This seems to be the worst fault of this variety in the eyes of 




Fig. 5. — Morse strain of San Jose Canner. Much improved in shape. 

growers and canners. Also the necessarily high price of seed for a 
carefully selected strain which produces very little seed per ton of 
tomatoes, as compared with seed from ordinary sources. 

Norton. — This variety originated as a selection from the ' ' Stone, " 
made by J. B. Norton of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. It is 
indistinguishable from a good strain of Stone in yield and character, 
but has the very great advantage of a high degree of resistance to 
Fusarium wilt. This quality has been found to hold good in Cali- 
fornia. Norton is therefore recommended for planting instead of the 
Stone. ' ' Norduke ' ' is very similar to Norton. 



14 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 




Fig. 6.— Sections of Morse strain of < ' Canner * ' tomato. 



CIRCULAR 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 



15 



Globe. — The Globe is a deep, globular-shaped tomato of pink color. 
It is probably the most resistant to Fusarium wilt of any of the older 
commercial varieties. Large acreages of Globe are planted by seeds- 
men in southern California with entire success. The variety is being 




Fig. 7. — Norton tomato. A disease-resistant selection of Stone. 



16 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 




Fig. 8. — Sections of Norton tomato. 



CIRCULAR 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 17 

grown in California for shipping to a certain extent and from present 
indications should replace the Stone for this purpose, on account of 
its resistance to disease. 

Diener. — This appears to be a typical strain of "San Jose Canner, " 
with the heavy production and rough fruit characteristic of this 
variety. 

Other Varieties. — Many other tomato varieties are grown in Cali- 
fornia and elsewhere, but none have thus far shown qualities which 
recommend them above those already described. The following have 
been grown experimentally or closely observed in this work : Arlington, 
Burbank, Columbia, Earliana, Greater Baltimore, Louisiana Pink, 
Louisiana Red, Marvel and Trophy. 

DISEASES 

In this survey attention has not been paid to all the diseases of 
the tomato, but simply the most important ones which more or less 
regularly affect the yield of canning tomatoes. 

Western Blight. — The losses supposed to be due to this disease were 
largely responsible for the present work being started. The writer 
found, however, very early in his survey that "Blight" is a very vague 
term in the minds of most California tomato-growers. It appears that 
for many years there has occurred in California a dying of tomato 
plants in the field which causes various degrees of loss in different 
seasons, but a serious amount in the aggregate. This trouble has 
usually been greater in the warmer parts of the state and of less extent 
near the coast and in the Bay district, although it is reported as having 
been abundant in some seasons in the latter region. Some even stat<> 
that the occurrence of this ' ' Blight ' ' is the only factor which prevents 
the extensive growing of canning tomatoes in the interior valley of 
California. There seems from the first to have been much doubt con- 
cerning the identity and nature of this disease. Nearly twenty years 
ago R. E. Smith 2 stated that "This trouble has been commonly referred 
to as the bacterial blight, an eastern tomato disease. It is not that 
disease." Smith considered the disease to be due to a soil fungus, a 
species of Fusarium, which attacks the roots and thereby weakens and 
finally kills the plant above ground. He states, however, that "If a 
plant is pulled up as soon as it begins to show wilting and fading, the 
roots look healthy and sound," but thinks that the trouble starts at 
the ends of the roots. The further opinion is expressed that this disease 



2 Smith, E. E. Tomato diseases in California. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
175, p. 7. 1906. 



18 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

is not the well-known tomato wilt of the eastern states, caused by 
Fusarium lycopersici Sacc, but a different disease. Smith calls this 
disease "Summer Blight." The same writer in a later publication 3 
suggests that "it is possible that two different diseases are confused 
in this trouble." Rogers 4 in 1912 described this disease under the 
name of ' ' Summer Blight " or " Wilt ' ' and states that it has been the 
cause of enormous losses in California through the dying of plants in 
the field. This author states that "The roots of a plant affected by 
the wilt appear to be normal. ' ' A large amount of negative or incon- 
clusive and therefore unpublished work was performed by Rogers upon 
the nature of this disease. He considered "Summer Blight" to be 
entirely distinct from the true Fusarium wilt and suggested the possi- 
bility of its being a mosaic or systemic disease. Humphrey 5 in 1914, 
described under the name "Yellow Blight" a tomato disease of the 
Pacific Northwest. This disease appeared to bear considerable resem- 
blance to that occurring in California. Humphrey considered Yellow 
Blight to be due to two species of Fusarium, F. ortkoceras and F. 
oxysporum, attacking the roots during periods of high temperature, 
intense light and low humidity, and believed the disease to be distinct 
from the usual tomato wilt caused by F. lycopersici. Subsequent work 
by Hall and by Heald, referred to very briefly in several annual 
reports of the Washington Station, suggested another soil fungus, 
Rhizoctonia, rather than Fusarium, as the cause of this trouble in 
the State of Washington. Previously in Idaho, Huntley, 6 and Hender- 
son 7 mentioned a tomato "Blight" or "Yellows" which appears to 
be similar to the disease under discussion. The name "Western 
Blight ' ' seems to have originated in the United States Department of 
Agriculture as a designation of this more or less well-defined tomato 
disease of California and the Northwest. The name was used by 
Orton 8 as early at least as 1907. 

The writer's observations in California during the seasons of 1922 
and 1923 strongly bear out the conclusion that two different diseases 

3 Smith, R. E., and Smith, E. H. California plant diseases. Calif. Agr. Exp. 
Sta. Bull. 218, p. 1168. 1911. 

4 Rogers, S. S. The culture of tomatoes in California with special reference 
to their diseases. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 239, pp. 612-615. 1923. 

5 Humphrey, H. B. Studies on the relation of certain species of Fusarium to 
the tomato blight of the Pacific Northwest. Washington Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
115, pp. 1-22, plates, 1-4. 1914. 

e Huntley, P. A. Tomato culture. Idaho Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 34, pp. 108-117, 
figs. 1-3. 1904. 

7 Henderson, L. P. Tomato Blight. Ann Rept. Idaho Agr. Exp. Sta. pp. 28-32. 
1904. 

s Orton, W. A. Tomato Diseases. In Tomato Culture, by W. W. Tracy. 
Orange Judd Co., New York. 



CIRCULAR 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 



19 



* 



♦ >' 4. 



?m 






,* 




f^mm 



M 





Fig. 9. — The disease called tomato ''Blight" in California: typical fields. 
This has been supposed to be Western Blight, but it appears that much of the 
trouble is due to Fusarium Wilt, a disease which can be controlled by planting 
resistant varieties. 



20 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

have been confused under the general term "Blight," one of these 
resembling the usual Fusarium wilt common to many parts of the 
country, caused by Fusarium ly coper sici Sacc, while the other may 
be termed true western blight, the cause of which is still unknown. It 
is also concluded that in the years mentioned wilt was a much more 
serious factor than western blight. 

Western blight, as the writer distinguishes it in California, is 
characterized by the rolling, with an upward inclination, of the leaflets, 
which become stiffened and somewhat thickened. These stiffened 
leaflets have a suggestion of brittleness when pressed with the fingers. 
As the disease progresses in the plant, the leaves take on a peculiar 
sulf ury yellow color which is so characteristic as a symptom of western 
blight that it can scarcely be mistaken for any other disease. The 
veins of the leaflets nearly always become of a purplish to deep purple 
color, although this purpling of the veins should not be considered as 
a necessary symptom of western blight. During 1923 purpling has 
been much in evidence on the foliage of those plants which developed 
symptoms of western blight late in the season. In many instances the 
whole leaf surface has become purpled as well as the veins. In western 
blight the stems and branches of the plant appear to be normal except 
that they are dry inside, indicating that the ability of the root system 
to take moisture from the soil has been seriously impaired. The root 
system shows symptoms of western blight in its dead and dying roots. 
The smallest roots die first, the infection working gradually through 
the roots until it enters that part of the plant stem below ground. 
When this has occurred, the plant is usually nearly done for. There is 
a slight discoloration in the roots a short distance ahead of the dead 
or dying part, this being more pronounced just under the cortex. As 
the root dies, it becomes much shrunken. When the disease has 
progressed far enough to be readily distinguishable, the plant has 
stopped growing and we have never seen a plant which showed infec- 
tion in the spring that has grown further. Among those plants which 
did not develop typical symtoms until fall, certain plants have been 
observed which were apparently in a growing condition and also 
affected by western blight. It is our conclusion, however, that when a 
plant shows symptoms of being affected by western blight that it will 
never grow any more. Plants affected by western blight seldom pro- 
duce fruits approaching normal in size. The greater number of fruits 
from affected plants are very small, seldom over two inches in diameter, 
and the seeds are aborted. The flavor of the fruit is not bad, but such 
fruits lack the sprightly flavor of normal fruits. Western blight 
usually appears in June, in plants set in the field in May or earlier. 



CIRCULAR 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 



21 



It is characteristically a disease of early summer and new eases arc 
rarely seen later in the season. In fact it is a common practice where 
plants show the disease in June to pull them out and replace with new 
plants in the same holes. Such replants almost never show the disease. 
There is a certain relation between the prevalence of western blight 
and climatic conditions. During normal seasons, i.e., seasons of normal 




Fig. 10.— Tomato plant affected with " Blight.' 



temperatures, the disease is quite prevalent, reports having been made 
of losses of over 50 per cent of the plants by this disease. In such 
normal seasons fairly warm weather in May occurs, followed by a 
period of decidedly high temperature in June. The statement is 
usually made that western blight appears after the first "hot spell." 
During seasons of subnormal temperatures during May and June, 
western blight shows a very low percentage of occurrence, even though 
hot weather follows later in the summer. The disease is also usually 
most abundant in the hottest, and least common in the coolest portions 



22 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

of the state. As a consequence of these characteristics, western blight 
occurs quite regularly every year in the upper San Joaquin Valley, 
while in the Bay region it develops abundantly only in occasional 
seasons when high temperatures occur in May and June. Knowledge 
of the relation of soil temperatures to the occurrence of western blight 
would be of much interest in this connection. There is also a certain 
relation between the number of affected plants and the number of 
plants which have been injured in transplanting. Those plants which 
develop symptoms of western blight by June 15 have almost invariably 
shown severe transplanting injury below the ground level. (This is 
the condition in the Santa Clara Valley). This fact shows an apparent 
connection with the freedom from western blight of tomato plants 
grown from seed planted directly in the field and never transplanted. 

During the seasons of 1922 and 1923, western blight was not a 
generally serious factor affecting the acre yield of tomatoes. The loss 
in plants was from about 5% to as high as 75%, but the average was 
not above 10%. In that part of the San Joaquin Valley from Fresno 
on to Bakersfield, western blight was very prevalent and accounted for 
a loss up to 75% of some fields. The other tomato-growing sections 
were comparatively free from western blight as compared to past 
years, at least this is the report had from the growers and field men 
for the canneries. 

There has been no marked difference in susceptibility among the 
important varieties of canning tomatoes that have been under obser- 
vation. Several authorities, however, have reported that Dwarf 
Champion showed marked resistance. (See Humphrey, Henderson, 
1. c. ) Some indication of resistance in this variety has also been seen 
in California, Western blight shows no relation to the previous plant- 
ing of tomatoes on the same land, but occurs either on new or old land 
with no apparent relation to this factor. 

Fusarium Wilt. — There is a tomato disease in California which has 
all the characteristics of the Fusarium wilt which is so commonly 
found in the southern, or warmer states. The characteristics of this 
disease are at first a rolling of the leaflets which gradually wither and 
finally die, beginning with the lower leaves. Such leaflets sometimes 
turn yellow, but this is not an important symptom, since in many 
cases little change in color is noticed except that in dying the leaves 
become dry and brown. The plant may wither either as a whole or in 
one or two stems, but withering does not seem to be as characteristic a 
symptom in California as might be expected, judging by the behavior 
of the disease as known in other states. Parts of the plant may at first 
wilt only during the warmer portion of the day, but in a more advanced 



CIRCULAR 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 23 

stage the whole plant may become involved, or show decided wilting. 
Where wilting occurs it is usually confined at first to only one or two 
stems of the plant, and generally this does not occur until the disease 
is well advanced within the root system. As the leaves wither and die. 
the stem finally becomes deprived of all its foliage and begins to die 
and shrivel, taking on a brown color. The root system is affected and 
the trouble is evident at first among the smaller roots which become of 
a darkened color and decayed. The larger roots upon being cut in 
cross-sections or split lengthwise at first show the fibro vascular tissues 
to be discolored and turn to a brownish color. Later the whole inside 
of the root becomes of a dark brown or almost black color. The stem 
and branches of the wilt-affected plant have a brownish colored vascu- 
lar system. This color varies from a light brownish color to a deep 
brown, depending upon the stage of the disease. The discoloration of 
the fibro-vascular system of the stem is caused by the invading fungus. 
This discoloration is most marked at the axis and in advanced stages 
of the disease, the removal of a leaf or branch will disclose an area 
much more darkly colored than that found in the fibro-vascular system. 
The pith is not discolored, but remains apparently normal until the 
plant dies. "While no laboratory work has been done by the writer to 
determine whether this tomato wilt in California is caused by the same 
organism (Fusarium lycopersici) as in the typical disease in other 
states, the symptoms are identical with those with which he has been 
familiar in other sections where this fungus is known to be the 
causal organism. This diagnosis has also been corroborated by Mr. 
Shapovalov. 

Many plants affected by this Fusarium wilt are not entirely killed 
by it, in fact numerous cases have been seen in which 60 per cent 
or even 80 per cent of the plants were affected, but actually not over 
2 per cent died with the disease. In fact it seems to be a more or 
less general rule that under average conditions in California this 
disease does not show the virulence experienced in other states. While 
the disease has been under observation by the writer during only two 
seasons, there has been no indication of a tendency for it to become 
more virulent from one season to another. This condition seems to 
be largely attributable to climatic differences of different seasons. 
While the number of plants actually killed by the disease does not 
necessarily show a steady or marked increase when the same land is 
planted in tomatoes during consecutive years, it is nevertheless true 
that the fungus shows a decided increase from year to year in its 
aggregate effects. The large percentage of Fusarium-infected plants, 
whether they actually die or not, is a very positive factor in lowering 



24 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

the acre yield of tomatoes and this decrease in yield increases rapidly 
from year to year. One field of about twenty acres illustrates a typical 
case of this and of the comparative behavior of western blight and 
Fusarium wilt. The development of western blight occurred soon after 
this field was planted and by June 15th was at its height. After this 
date very few plants developed the trouble and the affected plants were 
well distributed in the field to the extent of about 10 per cent of the 
total number. At this time about 1 per cent of the plants were badly 
affected with Fusarium wilt. The Fusarium developed quite steadily 
during the season until 60 per cent of the plants were affected to a 
greater or less degree, although not more than 2 per cent of them died 
on account of the disease. The variety was the commonly planted 
strain of "San Jose Canner" which shows typically what may be 
called a partial resistance to the disease. Approximately half of this 
field had produced tomatoes before this season, the other being new 
land for this crop. There was as much western blight on the one half 
as on the other, but the Fusarium wilt was a much more serious factor 
on the older half of the field. In the new portion the wilt was only 
half as much as that on the other part which had been in tomatoes 
before. 

During the latter part of the canning season a considerable per- 
centage of the fruit from some fields showed a yellow mottling. Upon 
examination the yellow color was found to be in the outer walls extend- 
ing through the entire thickness. Field investigation showed that all 
such mottled fruit came from Fusarium-infected plants, but all such 
infected plants did not produce mottled fruit. In all the tomato-grow- 
ing sections investigated during the past two seasons, Fusarium wilt 
has been found. 

In the Merced district during 1923 whole blocks of Earliana and 
Stone were ruined by Fusarium during June. Actual count showed 
that not less than 90 per cent of the plants were visibly affected with 
a proportionate loss of crop. In the vicinity of San Jose, the case of 
a typical field may be mentioned for illustration : In this field both 
Earliana and San Jose Canner were grown. The Earliana showed a 
loss of 20 per cent of the plants on account of Fusarium wilt in late 
July. At the same time the Canner showed very little infection. 

In the interior valleys and southern California Fusarium wilt is 
undoubtedly a very serious tomato disease. The same is true in the 
Bay region and other cooler sections of the state, although the losses 
there are proportionately less. In the warmer sections there is an 
actual loss of a considerable percentage of plants, while in the colder 



CIRCULAR 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 25 

sections of the state the greatest loss from Fusarium infection is caused 
by the lowered producing ability of the plants, rather than by the 
number actually killed. While the percentage visibly affected by 
Fusarium may be low, an examination of the plants by cutting open 
the stem and observing the discoloration of the fibro-vascular system 
may show that 80 per cent of the plants or more are infected by the 
time that harvest season commences. 

Fusarium wilt can be controlled to some extent by crop rotation, 
but by far the greatest possibility lies along the line of growing resist- 
ant varieties. Since the cause of the disease is a soil organism which 
enters the plant through the root system, such methods as spraying 
with a fungicide or dusting with sulphur cannot be of any effect. 

The most susceptible variety grown in California commercially is 
the Stone. Numerous cases have been seen of almost total loss of this 
variety by Fusarium wilt. Fortunately a number of varieties have 
been developed which are highly resistant to this disease. It is recom- 
mended that the Stone be replaced by the Norton or Norduke, both of 
which are of Stone type and red in color. These two varieties have 
shown by actual test that they are as resistant in California as else- 
where. The Globe is an older pink variety which has considerable 
resistance and which is suggested to displace Stone for shipping. For 
canning purposes in those sections not suited for the growing of the 
Canner, the Norton should be tried. In the Bay region the Canner has 
shown a considerable degree of resistance to Fusarium wilt, partly 
perhaps on account of low temperatures rather than from actual resist- 
ance to the fungus. Comparative tests in that region have shown, 
however, that it is less susceptible than the Stone. 

Fusarium wilt is apparently one of the most serious diseases affect- 
ing tomatoes in California, but fortunately one which we have every 
assurance can be controlled by the use of resistant varieties. In the 
upper San Joaquin Valley from Fresno to Bakersfield western blight 
is an even more serious factor, but in the commercial tomato-growing 
districts Fusarium wilt has been found in every field examined and 
as high as 80 per cent of the plants show infections with this disease 
at the end of the season. What the cost in tonnage amounts to can- 
not even be estimated, but it must be a very large one. If we assume 
that the falling off in wilt which always occurs when tomatoes are 
grown consecutively for several years on the same land (see page 6) 
is caused by Fusarium wilt, the importance of this disease needs no 
further exposition. 

Nematodes. — In a number of tomato growing sections the Nematode 
Worm is very prevalent, causing the root knot disease. This is par- 



26 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA— EXPERIMENT STATION 



ticularly true in light soils in the San Joaquin Valley and in southern 
California. Where this pest is present in the soil, the successful 
production of tomatoes cannot be expected. 

Blossom End Rot. — This disease is sometimes serious in tomatoes ; 
one field near San Jose which was condemned on account of it was 
seen, and no fruit was gathered from the field for commercial purposes. 
Much study has been given to this trouble all over the country. The 
general conclusion regarding it is that it is not due to any parasite or 
pest, but is the result of irregular and scanty irrigation. Fields which 
regularly receive sufficient water and thorough cultivation do not show 
this condition. 




Fig. 11. — Tomato root affected by nematodes, 
to plant in new land. 



No remedy except 



CIRCULAR 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 



27 




Fig. 12.— "Tip Blight" disease of tomato. 



28 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

Tip Blight. — There has been prevalent in parts of central Cali- 
fornia during 1923 a disease which for want of a better name will be 
called ' ' Tip Blight. ' ' This disease has been observed in the Bay region 
and near Suisun. It was first brought to attention by a grower near 
San Jose, in one part of whose field there was an apparent infection 
of 75 per cent of the plants. This badly infected area covered about 
a half acre. The balance of the thirty-acre field showed only an 
average of 10 per cent the first week of July and did not materially 
change during the remainder of the season, except that some of the 
infected plants gradually died down. During August, near Suisun, a 
number of adjacent fields comprising about 200 acres, showed an 
apparent infection of 5% to 20%. At Hay ward the percentage was 
about the same as at Suisun, although the infection in spots ran con- 
siderably higher. At Milpitas the disease was quite prevalent in the 
corner of one field, the percentage of infected plants being 40%. Prac- 
tically every field in the Bay region that has been under observation 
showed some plants with this disease. But it was only in a few limited 
spots that commercial losses were caused by it. 

The first indication of the disease is a wilting of the soft tips of 
the stems, the wilting occurring without change of color in either the 
stem or the foliage. The wilting is followed by the appearance of 
longitudinal, dark-colored blotches on the stem, the blotches being irre- 
gular in size and outline. The fibro-vascular system seems to be clear, 
but the pith shows rusty to brownish discoloration. In parts of the 
browned pith there are vacant areas, appearing as if the pith had been 
destroyed. The impression is often given that an insect had been 
tunneling through the pith, but no insect has been found at work, nor 
are there any castings present. There seems to be no opening through 
which an insect has entered or left the infected stems. During the 
earlier stages of the disease the pith discoloration extends down the 
stem about the same distance as do the blotches in the cortex, later the 
pith discoloration descends without any relation to the location of the 
external blotches. The cortex blotches occur on the petioles of the 
leaflets and on the main axis of the leaf as well as on the cortex of the 
stem. A rather distinctly characteristic spot has been observed on the 
leaflets of infected stems. 

During this year the greater number of infected plants had set a, 
considerable number of fruits before the disease attacked them, or at 
least before it became apparent, and in most instances this fruit was 
matured. In other instances the plant died to the ground before the 
maturity of the fruit. The disease spread slowly during the remainder 
of the season from July 10 to November 1, but its effect was not so 



Circular 280] SURVEY OF THE CANNING TOMATO INDUSTRY 29 

pronounced nor was it so destructive of the plant as it was in early 
July. This later infection was confined almost entirely to the tips of 
the plants and to the petioles and axes of the topmost leaves. 

This disease occurred among' the plants in a small garden during 
late August and September, only one plant of twenty being at first 
affected, but the trouble gradually spread to six of them. Half of the, 
affected plants were cut off some distance below the apparent infection 
and there was no further development of the disease in the cut-off 
plants, each of which matured fruit after being topped. During some 
stages of this disease it could be easily mistaken for Fusarium wilt 
because of the appearance of the dying plant. As the stem dies, the 
leaflets become dry and brittle and fall off. The stem as it dries turns 
to a dark brown color and becomes shrunken. During the latter part 
of the season, from September on to the end of the season, wilting- has 
not been so evident and in most cases developed during this period the 
tips and leaves have died without wilting". 

Gardner and Kendrick 9 describe, as a form of tomato mosaic, 
symptoms which appear identical with those of this disease. 

Southern Wilt. — During June of this year there appeared among 
the plants of one field at Merced a peculiar wilting of the axes of the 
leaves. Upon cutting open the axis, the pith was found to have broken 
down and in place of it, there was a discolored milky juice. This 
condition is suggestive of the Southern or Bacterial wilt. 



SUMMAEY, CONCLUSIONS AND EECOMMENDATIONS 

On the basis of the observations and conclusions contained in this 
report, the writer would offer the following recommendations as the 
most promising and practical possibilities of improving the canning- 
tomato industry in the San Francisco bay region. 

1. Any successful effort toward permanent improvement of the 
canning-tomato-growing industry must come from the canners more 
than from the growers. 

2. It is suggested that the seed beds be planted about February 15th 
or March 1st rather than January 1st, as at present. This will result 
in planting in the field younger plants which will better stand the 
shock of transplanting and be more resistant to disease. 

3. No radical changes in present field practice are considered 
necessary. 

o Gardner, M. W., and Kendrick, J. B. Tomato Mosaic. Ind. Agr. Exp. Sta. 
Bull. 261, pp. 1-24. 1922. 



30 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

4. The disease commonly called "Blight" in California really con- 
sists of two diseases, ' ' Western Blight ' ' and ' ' Fusarium Wilt. ' ' The 
former is peculiar to California and the Northwest. The latter is the 
common tomato wilt disease of the southern and eastern states. 

5. In the most important tomato-growing parts of California, 
Western Blight is probably less important and Fusarium Wilt much 
more important than has heretofore been supposed. 

6. The cause and specific method of control of Western Blight are 
still to be discovered. 

7. Fusarium Wilt is controllable to a great extent by the use of 
resistant varieties, supplemented by crop rotation. 

8. The present, so-called "San Jose Canner" ("Jap Canner") 
variety of the San Francisco Bay region constitutes the most promising 
canning variety for that district, having highly desirable qualities of 
productiveness, color, flavor, percentage of solids and other canning 
qualities, and considerable disease resistance. Its principal defects are 
oversize, rough and irregular shape, too much core, and too long a 
season required for maturing the crop. 

9. The greatest practical opportunity for fairly immediate im- 
provement in quality and production of canning tomatoes lies in 
improving this variety by selection in the qualities mentioned and in 
disease resistance. 

10. There is no urgent demand for such improvement on the part 
of tomato growers. The effort to obtain, and especially to introduce 
such an improved variety must be largely fostered by the canners. 

11. The Stone variety is highly susceptible to Fusarium wilt and 
should be supplanted by Norton or Norduke for canning and by the 
same (red) varieties and the Globe (pink) for shipping. 

12. The development of other new tomato varieties is desirable, like- 
wise knowledge of the nature and control of Western Blight. 



STATION PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION 



No. 

253. Irrigation and Soil Conditions in the 
Sierra Nevada Foothills, California. 

261. Melaxuma of the Walnut, "Juglans 

regia/' 

262. Citrus Diseases of Florida and Cuba 

Compared with those of California. 

263. Size Grades for Ripe Olives. 

268. Growing and Grafting Olive Seedlings. 
273. Preliminary Report on Kearney Vine- 
yard Experimental Drain. 

275. The Cultivation of Belladonna in Cali- 

fornia. 

276. The Pomegranate. 

277. Sudan Grass. 

278. Grain Sorghums. 

279. Irrigation of Rice in California. 

280. Irrigation of Alfalfa in the Sacramento 

Valley. 
283. The Olive Insects of California. 

285. The Milk Goat in California. 

286. Commercial Fertilizers. 

287. Vinegar from Waste Fruits. 
294. Bean Culture in California. 
298. Seedless Raisin Grapes. 

804. A Study of the Effects of Freezes on 
Citrus in California. 

312. Mariout Barley. 

317. Selections of Stocks in Citrus Propa- 
gation. 

319. Caprifigs and Oaprification. 

321. Commercial Production of Grape Syrup. 

324. Storage of Perishable Fruit at Freezing 

Temperatures. 

325. Rice Irrigation Measurements and Ex- 

periments in Sacramento Valley, 

1914-1919. 
328. Prune Growing in California. 
331. Phylloxera-Resistant Stocks. 

334. Preliminary Volume Tables for Second- 

Growth Redwood. 

335. Cocoanut Meal as a Feed for Dairy 

Cows and Other Livestock. 

336. The Preparation of Nicotine Dust as 

an Insecticide. 
339. The Relative Cost of Making Logs from 
Small and Large Timber. 

343. Cheese Pests and Their Control. 

344. Cold Storage as an Aid to the Market- 

ing of Plums. 



BULLETINS 

No. 

346. 

347. 



348. 
349. 

350. 
351. 
352. 

353. 
354. 
355. 
357. 



358. 

359. 
360. 

361. 

362. 
363. 

364. 

366. 

367. 

368. 

369. 
370. 
371. 

372. 

373. 
374. 

375. 
376. 



Almond Pollination. 

The Control of Red Spiders in Decidu- 
ous Orchards. 

Pruning Young Olive Trees. 

A Study of Sidedraft and Tractor 
Hitches. 

Agriculture in Cut-over Redwood Lands. 

California State Dairy Cow Competition. 

Further Experiments in Plum Pollina- 
tion. 

Bovine Infectious Abortion. 

Results of Rice Experiments in 1922. 

The Peach Twig Borer. 

A Self-mixing Dusting Machine for 
Applying Dry Insecticides and 
Fungicides. 

Black Measles, Water Berries, and 
Related Vine Troubles. 

Fruit Beverage Investigations. 

Gum Diseases of Citrus Trees in Cali- 
fornia. 

Preliminary Yield Tables for Second 
Growth Redwood. 

Dust and the Tractor Engine. 

The Pruning of Citrus Trees in Cali- 
fornia. 

Fungicidal Dusts for the Control of 
Bunt. 

Turkish Tobacco Culture, Curing and 
Marketing. 

Methods of Harvesting and Irrigation 
in Relation to Mouldy Walnuts. 

Bacterial Decomposition of Olives dur- 
ing Pickling. 

Comparison of Woods for Butter Boxes 

Browning of Yellow Newtown Apples. 

The Relative Cost of Yarding Small 
and Large Timber. 

The Cost of Producing Market Milk and 
Butterfat on 246 California Dairies. 

Pear Pollination. 

A Survey of Orchard Practices in the 
Citrus Industry of Southern Cali- 
fornia. 

Results of Rice Experiments at Cor- 
tena, 1923. 

Sun-Drying and Dehydration of Wal- 
nuts. 



CIRCULARS 

No. No. 
70. Observations on the Status of Corn 161. 
Growing in California. 164. 
87. Alfalfa. 165. 
111. The Use of Lime and Gypsum on Cali- 
fornia Soils. 166. 
113. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture. 167. 
117. The Selection and Cost of a Small 170. 

Pumping Plant. 

136. Melilotua xndica as a Green-Manure 172. 

Crop for California. 173. 
127. House Fumigation. 

129. The Control of Citrus Insects. 174. 

144. Qidium or Powdery Mildew of the Vine. 178. 

151. Feeding and Management of Hogs. 179. 

152. Some Observations on the Bulk Hand- 

ling of Grain in California. 184. 

158. Announcement of the California State 190. 

Dairy Cow Competition, 1916-18. 193. 

154. Irrigation Practice in Growing Small 198. 

Fruit in California. 199. 

155. Bovine Tuberculosis. 201. 

157. Control of the Pear Scab. 202. 

158. Home and Farm Canning. 

160. Lettuce Growing in California. 203. 



Potatoes in California. 

Small Fruit Culture in California. 

Fundamentals of Sugar Beet Culture 

under California Conditions. 
The County Farm Bureau. 
Feeding Stuffs of Minor Importance. 
Fertilizing California Soils for the 1918 

Crop. 
Wheat Culture. 
The Construction of the Wood-Hoop 

Silo. 
Farm Drainage Methods. 
The Packing of Apples in California. 
Factors of Importance in Producing 

Milk of Low Bacterial Count. 
A Flock of Sheep on the Farm. 
Agriculture Clubs in California. 
A Study of Farm Labor in California. 
Syrup from Sweet Sorghum. 
Onion Growing in California. 
Helpful Hints to Hog Raisers. 
County Organizations for Rural Fire 

Control. 
Peat as a Manure Substitute. 



CIRCULARS — Continued 



No. 

205. 
206. 
208. 

209. 
210. 
212. 
214. 

215. 
217. 

219. 
220. 

228. 
230. 

231. 
232. 

233. 
234. 

235. 



237. 

238. 
239. 

240. 

241. 

243. 

244. 
245. 



Blackleg. 

Jack Cheese. 

Summary of the Annual Reports of the 
Farm Advisors of California. 

The Function of the Farm Bureau. 

Suggestions to the Settler in California. 

Salvaging Rain-Damaged Prunes. 

Seed Treatment for the Prevention of 
Cereal Smuts. 

Feeding Dairy Cows in California. 

Methods for Marketing Vegetables in 
California. 

The Present Status of Alkali. 

Unfermented Fruit Juices. 

Vineyard Irrigation in Arid Climates. 

Testing Milk, Cream, and Skim Milk 
for Butterfat. 

The Home Vineyard. 

Harvesting and Handling California 
Cherries for Eastern Shipment. 

Artificial Incubation. 

Winter Injury to Young Walnut Trees 
during 1921-22. 

Soil Analysis and Soil and Plant Inter- 
relations. 

The Common Hawks and Owls of Cali- 
fornia from the Standpoint of the 
Rancher. 

Directions for the Tanning and Dress- 
ing of Furs. 

The Apricot in California. 

Harvesting and Handling Apricots and 
Plums for Eastern Shipment. 

Harvesting and Handling Pears for 
Eastern Shipment. 

Harvesting and Handling Peaches for 
Eastern Shipment. 

Marmalade Juice and Jelly Juice from 
Citrus Fruits. 

Central Wire Bracing for Fruit Trees. 

Vine Pruning Systems. 



No. 

247. 
248. 

249. 
250. 

251. 



252. 
253. 
254. 

255. 

256. 
257. 
258. 
259. 
260. 

261. 
262. 
263. 
264. 

265. 
266. 

267. 

268. 

269. 
270. 
271. 
272. 

273. 

275. 



Colonization and Rural Development. 

Some Common Errors in Vine Pruning 
and Their Remedies. 

Replacing Missing Vines. 

Measurement of Irrigation Water on 
the Farm. 

Recommendations Concerning the Com- 
mon Diseases and Parasites of 
Poultry in California. 

Supports for Vines. 

Vineyard Plans. 

The Use of Artificial Light to Increase 
Winter Egg Production. 

Leguminous Plants as Organic Fertil- 
izer in California Agriculture. 

The Control of Wild Morning Glory. 

The Small-Seeded Horse Bean. 

Thinning Deciduous Fruits. 

Pear By-products. 

A Selected List of References Relating 
to Irrigation in California. 

Sewing Grain Sacks. 

Cabbage Growing in California. 

Tomato Production in California. 

Preliminary Essentials to Bovine Tuber- 
culosis Control. 

Plant Disease and Pest Control. 

Analyzing the Citrus Orchard by Means 
of Simple Tree Records. 

The Tendency of Tractors to Rise in 
Front: Causes and Remedies. 

Inexpensive Labor-saving Poultry Ap- 
pliances. 

An Orchard Brush Burner. 

A Farm Septic Tank. 

Brooding Chicks Artificially. 

California Farm Tenancy and Methods 
of Leasing. 

Saving the Gophered Citrus Tree. 

Marketable California Decorative 
Greens. 



5m-10,'24